Sunday, 10 December 2017

Total Impression/Common Themes in Keats' Poetry


The total impression of Keats’ odes constitutes a very solid and compact whole. There is an element of unity in the final impression that they leave upon the reader and this unity springs primarily from the oneness of theme in these odes. The basic theme underlying all these odes can be summed up very briefly like this: ‘The Odes deal with the fundamental human problems of finding a solace from the naked and merciless realities of life. The solace can be found in the objects and beauties of nature, in the world of art, in the world of imagination and in a wish for death, but with Keats the solace is always temporary in character and a final come back into the world of realities is very important and essential’.

Ode to a Nightingale

In Ode to Nightingale, we find that Keats has been deeply grieved by the mental strains of humanity at large. These strains have resulted from the intricate complexities of human life. Some are suffering from palsy, the others are dying young. Men sit and hear each other groan’. Man is suffering from so many problems that the world has become a place where but to think is to be full of sorrow’. In order to find relief from the heavy burden of human worries, Keats wants to fly far away into the world of the Nightingale who, ‘among the leaves hast never known’ as to how miserable is the life of man in the world of reality. The natural beauty of the world of Nightingale also subdues Keats’ mental strain to a large extent. The happy lot of the Nightingale generates a death wish in Keats and he puts it very clearly‘Now more than ever seems it rich to die’.

But finally Keats comes back into the world of reality with the sound of just one word ‘forlorn’, a word that reminds him of the human lot.

Ode on a Grecian Urn

More or less the same thing happens in Ode on a Grecian Urn. Here the world of art becomes a substitute for the world of nature (as in Ode to Nightingale) as an agency providing shelter against extreme human misery. Again, the Urn is as immortal as the Nightingale and this is in direct contrast to the transitory values of human life. The world of art enjoys complete permanence. The Urn is an ‘unravish’d bride of quietness’. So much so, it has given a touch of permanence even to the objects of earthly nature. The trees carved on the Urn are not going to shed its leaves. The piper will always continue to pipe sweet melodies. Keats says to the lover on the Urn, ’for ever wilt thou love, and she be fair’.

But with all this, towards the end of the poem, the realization dawns upon Keats that the permanence of the Urn made it a silent, speechless ‘Cold Pastoral’. It lacks the organic warmth of life. In spite of its permanence, it is dead like a machine. The realization marks the return of Keats from the world of art to the world of man and the realities of man.

Ode to Autumn

‘Ode to Autumn’ reveals not Keats’s pictorial quality only; but also a deep sense of purpose underneath. Although the first impression may be that John Keats is simply describing the main characteristics of autumn, and the human and animal activities related to it, a deeper reading could suggest that Keats talks about the process of life. Autumn symbolizes maturity in human and animal lives. Some instances of this are the ‘full-grown lambs’, the sorrow of the gnats, the wind that lives and dies, and the day that is dying and getting dark. As all we know, the next season is winter, a part of the year that represents aging and death, in other words, the end of life. However, death does not have a negative connotation because Keats enjoys and accepts ‘autumn’ or maturity as part of life, though winter is coming. Joys must not be forgotten in times of trouble. Blake’s dictum, ‘Under every grief and pine/Runs a joy with silken twine.’ The two are the part of life. Thus ‘thou has thy music too’ is the right approach to life showing the process of maturity and optimism.

Ode on Melancholy

Ode on Melancholy is yet another poem dealing with the strange dilemmas of human life. We have beauty and joy as a source of pain because both beauty and joy have only a fleeting value. The hand of joy is ‘ever at his lips---bidding Adieu’, and beauty is a thing ‘that must die’.

At the same time the poem also means that man must enjoy the pleasures of life to their full intensity because these pleasures can be over any moment, but one must prepare himself well in advance for the gloomy period of his life also.

From the above discussion we find that there are actually three main themes in Keats’ Odes:

1.   The Inevitability of Death

Even before his diagnosis of terminal tuberculosis, Keats focused on death and its inevitability in his work. For Keats, small, slow acts of death occurred every day, and he chronicled these small mortal occurrences.

The end of a lover’s embrace, the images on an ancient urn, the reaping of grain in autumn—all of these are not only symbols of death, but instances of it.

Examples of great beauty and art also caused Keats to ponder mortality, as in ‘On Seeing the Elgin Marbles’ (1817). As a writer, Keats hoped he would live long enough to achieve his poetic dream of becoming as great as Shakespeare or John Milton. In ‘Sleep and Poetry’ (1817), Keats outlined a plan of poetic achievement that required him to read poetry for a decade in order to understand—and surpass—the work of his predecessors. Hovering near this dream, however, was a morbid sense that death might intervene and terminate his projects; he expresses these concerns in the mournful 1818 sonnet ‘When I have fears that I may cease to be’.

2.   The Contemplation of Beauty

Keats possessed what Bradley calls ‘the Shakespearean strain’, and submitted to the truth of life. He knew that the cold wind and the hot sun were as essential as the fresh blown rose. The poetry of Shakespeare reveals the beauty of life. ‘Truth is beauty’, it says. It accepts the world of men and women as it is. This is also true of Keats. He accepted life as in it joy and sorrow, happiness and melancholy-both exist side by side. If there is discord in life it has its music too.

3.   Escapism

Almost in all of his odes we find him escaping from the realities of the present world and life. Sometimes he gets escape in the world of nature as in Ode to Autumn, some times in the world of art as in Ode to a Grecian Urn and at some other times he moves to an imaginary place to seek pleasure and satisfaction as in Ode to a Nightingale. But ultimately he has to come back into the world of realities with all of its fever and fret. 

Tuesday, 30 August 2016

An Analysis of the Poem "Eid" by Alamgir Hashmi


‘Eid’ is a short but thought-provoking poem. Apparently it seems to be a poem of joy, as the title suggests, but actually in it Alamgir Hashmi has pointed out some of the darker aspects of our society.  The poem is based on the observations of an innocent but sensitive child who is around there on the Eid day and watching the various people doing various jobs.

Eid is a festival that comes on the day after the days of Ramazan have been devoted to fasting. It is celebrated all over the Muslim world. This is the day when exchange of sweet dishes is made between the near and dear ones. At the very outset of the story it is made clear that Eid is more than the vermicelli thing. It must not be taken merely as a festival of joy and celebration. There is something more to do for the Muslims on this particular day.

Firstly the child observes the devotees in the mosque who raises offertory for the prayer keeper. The situation of the prayer-keepers in our society is very pathetic. Though they are the Imams of our prayers yet they live in a very pitiable condition. We often ignore them and they are provided just a paltry sum of rupees to meet the very needs of their lives.

When the child comes out of the mosque, he finds the beggars twitching and tugging the clothes of the people. They ask for something. When the child observes this situation, he is actually made aware of the miseries and sorrows of the poor people. The poverty rate in our country is rapidly increasing. It is no doubt an alarming situation. The beggars are shabby and dirty. Their clothes are full of muddy smudges and they have nothing to fill their bellies while the other people are enjoying the costly clothes and shoes and various dishes in their houses.

          There is an innocent desire to “anchor their corduroy cheeks”. He wishes the joys and celebrations must be for all and sundry and no person should be unsupplied with these pleasures. The well-off and prosperous Muslims should not ignore these down-trodden people. They must give them their share of happiness.

          On the dining table, the child goes into the depth. There are a number of questions regarding the miseries and sorrows, hovering around his plate. He is being overcome by the feelings of sympathy for the poor people. When the child holds the shining spoon in front of his face, he is actually finding a big contrast with those begrimed faces distorted by poverty. This indicates the huge gap between the rich and the poor in our country. How can this injustice be eliminated? We all are to perform something. The festivals like Eid are actually the reminders for this national and moral responsibility. 

An Analysis of the Poem "Pakistan Movement" by Alamgir Hashmi


This poem by Alamgir Hashmi is divided into three sections. The first part deals with the bloody partition of the Sub-continent. Some horrible and terrifying pictures of the migration are drawn. The second part discusses the advent of Islam in this region of the world and the glory of the Muslim conquerors and empire. There is also a reference to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and their desires to reach the warm waters of the Arabian Sea.  And in the end the poet deals with the future of Pakistan and the hopes of the nation.

Pakistan Movement is undoubtedly a moment that resulted in a wholesale migration of millions of people from their home-lands. A number of horrible and heart-rending scenes are still in the memory of the migrates. The houses left by them are set on fire. Thousands of men were killed, girls were kidnapped and the processions were attacked. People became love-less. Communal violence created a scene of death, decay and disorder.

The blistering journeys on foot, the grinding oxcart
expeditions, the slow, steamy railways
and their marauders behind us. . . . .
. . . and 47’s burning cities behind us.

After portraying a picture of these horrible spectacles, the poet advices us to bring it under our speculation that it was the land sublimely beautiful dreamt by our poet philosopher, it was the land detected by the Arabian sailor (Muhammad Bin Qasim) where shrieking voice was projected by a widowed girl for assistance. This is the land which witnessed the general’s superb act of faith. The Muslim general, a lad of seventeen, considering it religious and sacred duty, came to her rescue. He paved the way for other Muslim generals to make a series of conquests on the Sub-Continent and provided a direction for compassing future achievements by their descendants. After that Muslims ruled over there for more than eight centuries. That was the height of Muslim rule in India.

After the partition, somewhere in 1979, the sea lions aspired to capture the world. They desired to reach the warm waters of the Indian Ocean. It was a big threat for the existence of Pakistan. But there-after unexpectedly a volcanic disturbance appeared from the belly of the earth. All their plans failed. Our enemy was divided into many independent Christian and Muslim states and by the grace of Allah Almighty we were protected. But the challenges are not over. We are realizing our hopes and expectations for the preservation, solidification and extension of our ideology.

          Violent flow of rivers means revolution whereas unending slow flow of rivers means evolution. The past is astoundingly a beautiful valley. It is replete with the brilliant achievements of our forefathers. The present is full of intensity. Only those can survive who constantly remain in struggle to maintain their freedom against heavy odds, against their foes.

          The poet ends the poem with the message that we should do good to our men, to our nation. We should maintain our freedom at any cost. He says that he feels like sowing the seeds of words there so that he could have good trees moving along the water-ways in future. The future is anyhow upon this planet, a worth tending flower. It must be kept in view to enjoy its beauty and fragrance upon permanent basis.

The structure of the poem is complex and complicated because the style of the poet is suggestive and reflective. The readers must have some knowledge of history to pursue the poet’s ideas. The poet builds up a sequence of pictures rather than giving a scene from beginning to end. This seems haphazard to the readers. However, on a careful study of the poem it has been found that there is a thin and subtle thread which runs throughout the poem and gives it a sort of unity. The above said incidents are not narrated in a traditional way rather they are only hinted upon to put forward a justification for the creation of Pakistan and they also urge us to stand for the freedom of our country and preserve its ideology.

An Analysis of the Poem "The Road" by Hina Faisal Imam


Feminism as a movement has played a very vital role in projecting the suppressed status of women in the patriarchal society. In the domain of patriarchal culture, woman is a social construct, a site on which masculine meanings get spoken and masculine desires enacted. The road by Hina Faisal Imam sings a song of pinching pain about feminism over the miseries and sorrows experienced by married women.

The condition of women in our country, especially in rural areas, is very pathetic, or morally and ethically incorrect. This fact has been highlighted on numerous occasions by the ill treatment of women.

The Road is a very pathetic song about the miseries and sorrows experienced by the married women, who are confined to their houses. Though they are provided with all the material needs yet no one is there to fulfill the demands of their souls. They silently are registering a complaint to the sane men of this world.

On her journey towards Multan, Hina Faisal Imam notices a group of girls chanting alluring and popular songs. Their voices transport her from a desolate wilderness to a realm of dream land where she finds smiles and glances of some beloved ones. She starts thinking of sand witches made out of eggs deliciously taken by people. She is thinking of them to gain time so that she may be able to envisage a matter of graver importance and ponder over it.

Then she depicts the miserable condition of the married women in that area. They are kept confined by feudal lords within the four walls of their mansions. They are desired to pay the lowly conge to them. They are not considered as par with them. They are just there to appease their demands. Though they are loaded with gold and dressed in costly costume, yet considered as prisoners, they have to shed unceasing tears. No one comes to wipe them and muster up their courage. They live a life of physical bondage.

            The soil has bound them like pillars
            In the haveli courtyard to eat, sleep
            And talk as the sun rises and sets on
            Blank faces.

Ill–treatment of women arises from our male dominated society’s perception of women as having the relatively low key-role of child bearer, home maker, and an asset. It is common knowledge that in rural Pakistan, women are very much treated like property, similar to land, or a cow, or a tube well. How pathetic these lines are

            Tears fall on dust floor
            No one wipes them clean
            From a pretty face
            That mends loneliness
            In the bathroom.

The patriarchal society should perceive women beyond the roles of daughters, wives and mothers. Traditional male fantasies have created a particular image of women to suit their interests—submissive, servile, docile and self-abnegating. A big transformation is required at the social level, which will acknowledge women as human beings with souls, desires, feelings, ambitions and potentials.

Hina Faisal Imam asserts that women can no longer be brow-beaten into subjugation or bondage that they have a voice and a claim, and must have the confidence to know their worth. As a poetess she gives voice to issues concerning women, and appeals to the sane and compassionate people to come forward and share her feelings. Peace should be established in the life of women. They should be given their due rights. The Road is metaphorically “The road of human life”. It is undertaken by a human pair: man and woman. It will get disturbed if inalienable rights are denied to women folk and if peace does not usher in their lives. 

Role of Fate in the Poem "Wedding in the Flood" by Taufiq Rafat


The poem Wedding in the Flood is certainly about wedding ceremony which is always associated with joy and mirth. But the segment of the wedding which the poem deals with is the departure of the bride. This segment is more about the bereft and parting than any mirthful activities. The poem is a chain of expressions of unknown risks and fears. The mother of the bride expresses her fears about the nature and the attitude of the bridegroom. How will she be able to be a part of that stranger house with stranger people and environment? The parting day for her is becoming tediously troublesome.

When parents in a society like Pakistan choose a match for their daughter, they do it with a lot of fears and prayers. They feel worried because the women are not given their due rights in our society and they have very little authority in the daily affairs of life. So they have to be subordinate to their men. The thoughts and worries of the bride are very natural. She is worried about the articles of her dowry which might spoil in the rain. She also thinks about her husband’s nature and disposition. She is actually in total scaring atmosphere. Same are the worries of the bridegroom for her new life partner.

If only her face matches her hands
And she gives me no mother-in-law problems….

Throughout the day the rain continues to fall and because of the rainy season the river is flooding which the marriage party is to cross. During the cross, the boat of the wedding party is caught up in the frowning waves of the river and throws its passengers and luggage on the angry waves. The wedding party including the father of the bridegroom, the bridegroom and the bride downs in the river. The party who set out on a joyful journey in the morning, their journey quite ironically ended in tragic loss of lives and longings.

In Taufiq Rafat’s poems, we find simple people suffering death and destruction. However they do not contribute to the cause of their destruction. They are merely puppet in the hands of fate. In this poem we cannot hold any body responsible and nor can find anybody trying to avert the sudden mortality. We note that fate, in the shape of rain and then the river, is very unkind to the poor villagers. In the day time, the rain keeps on taxing them and in the evening they are faced with howling river. 

A Picture of Pakistani Rural Culture in the Poem "Wedding in the Flood" by Taufiq Rafat


In this poem the poet has presented a very vivid slice of life in the rural Punjab. The picture is so real that the readers who are acquainted to the culture of the rural Punjab read this poem with complete involvement and cannot help appreciating the poet’s power of portraying true poetic picture of Pakistani culture.

When parents in a society like Pakistan choose a match for their daughter, they do it with a lot of fears and prayers. They feel worried because the women are not given their due rights in our society and they have very little authority in the daily affairs of life. So they have to be subordinate to their men. The bride is frightened because of these circumstances. She also thinks about her husband’s nature and disposition. She is actually in total scaring atmosphere. Same are the worries of the bridegroom for her new life partner.

If only her face matches her hands
And she gives me no mother-in-law problems….

The bridegroom has not seen his bride before and he will only see her at his home after the ceremonies are over. Arranged marriages are a common practice in Pakistan. The bridegroom’s desires and expectations for having a beautiful wife evoke a little bit of fun and amusement. He is trying to guess the beauty of his wife by watching her hands.

Next, the poet takes note of a myth which is very famous in Pakistani society regarding the boys and girls wedding day weather. If the rain falls or wind storm comes on the wedding day, people blame the girls or the boy that this happened on account of his/her habit of pot-licking in childhood. However in this poem only the bride has been blamed of causing the rain fall because the poem presents the behaviors and remarks of the bridegroom’s side for most of time. The bridegroom says:

It was my luck to get a pot-licking wench.

We should keep in mind that such things are said usually in light mood but sometimes if a tragedy occurs, then the bride is seriously blamed.

The bride’s father-in-law protests, out of indignation, over a petty dowry which is useless for him but useful to the bride only. He says if the bride’s parents had given a bullock, it could have been very useful at the next season of sowing. They have been burdened with it for nothing in this ruthless weather. Such type of demands or desires is very common in Pakistani society and is generally the root cause of spoiling conjugal union and a lot of trouble for women.

The use of palankeen for transporting the bride was very common in the recent past in Pakistan. This means of transport presents a special look and implication on the eve of marriage. Such type of arrangement for the transport of bride shows that the bride is gold and flower like thing. She is a gift or booty for the bridegroom and his family. She should be transported to the bridegroom’s house as if she is something divine. Certainly it was a beautiful custom which now has been lost in the past.

The cultural environment which we have discussed above demonstrates both the beauties and biases that are associated with the marriage institution in the rural Pakistan.

Wednesday, 27 May 2015



MCQs: 100

(1) The subjugation of Women (1869) is an important text of:
(a) George Eliot
(b) Byron
(c) John Mill
(d) Hardy

(2) Which of the following poems by Tennyson is a monodrama?
(a) Ulysses
(b) Break, Break, Break
(c) Maud
(d) Crossing the Bar

(3) The line “she dwells with Beauty – Beauty that must be” occurs in Keats’
(a) Lamia
(b) Ode to a Grecian Urn
(c) Ode on Melancholy
(d) Endymion

(4) Negative Capability to Keats, means
(a) The ability to sympathize with other
(b) Say bad thing, about others
(c) To empathize

(5) “Art for arts sake” found its true adherent in:
(a) Wordsworth
(b) Byron
(c) Browning
(d) Wilde

(6) It as the best of times, it was the worst of time, it was the worst – the opening of
(a) Hard Times
(b) David Copperfield
(c) Oliver Twist
(d) A Tales of Two Cities

(7) The character of Little Neil is a creation of:
(a) Hardy
(b) Eliot
(c) Oscar Wilde
(d) Dickens

(8) “Idylls of the King” is illustration of Tennyson’s deep interest in:
(a) Medieval legends
(b) The role of the king
(c) Hero worship
(d) The contemporary condition

(9) Who believed that poetry is the spontaneous overflow of emotions?
(a) Blake
(b) Byron
(c) Wordsworth
(d) Keats

(10) Who after the publication of a poem, awoke and found himself famous?
(a) Shelley
(b) Browning
(c) Wordsworth
(d) Keats

(11) The image of the femme fatale dominates the poetry of:
(a) Wordsworth
(b) Keats
(c) Byron
(d) Tennyson

(12) Little Time is a character in Hardy’s
(a) The return of the native
(b) Jude the Obscure
(c) Mayor of Casterbridge

(13) Which is the famous elegy written by Shelley?
(a) In Memoriam
(b) Lycidas
(c) Adonis
(d) Thyrsis

(14) Moral choice is everything in the works of:
(a) Dickens
(b) George Eliot
(c) Hardy

(15) Which of the following is illustrative of Ruskin’s interest in social economy?
(a) The Seven Lamps
(b) Unto this Last
(c) The Stones of Venice

(16) Which one of the following poets named the Romantic poet as the “pond poets”?
(a) Southey
(b) Shelley
(c) Keats
(d) Byron

(17) The Charge of the Light Brigade” (Tennyson) commemorates:
(a) The Boer War
(b) The battle of Trafalgar
(c) The Crimean War

(18) The Elgin Marbles inspired Keats to write:
(a) Endymion
(b) Lamia
(c) The Grecian Urn
(d) Melancholy

(19) Would you tell Sordelo (Browning) as a:
(a) Dramatic Monologue
(b) Dramatic Lyrics
(c) Tragic Drama

(20) Which one of the following poets was appointed Poet Laureate in the year 1813?
(a) Tennyson
(b) Byron
(c) Southey
(d) Wordsworth

(21) Shakespeare’s Hamlet is
(a) A tragedy
(b) Comedy

(22) Earnest Hamingway has written
(a) Old Man and the Sea
(b) Mr. Chips
(c) Pride and Prejudice

(23) Who wrote Gulliver’s Travels?
(a) Charles Dickens
(b) Chaucer
(c) Jonathan Swift

(24) Which of the following is not a dramatist?
(a) Ben Johnson
(b) Byron
(c) Eliot

(25) Which of the following is not a play by Shakespeare?
(a) Hamlet
(b) Macbeth
(c) Dr. Faustus

(26) E. M. Foster is a
(a) Novelist
(b) Poet
(c) Playwright

(27) “The Pickwick Papers” is a novel by:
(a) Jane Austen
(b) Charles Dickens
(c) Thackery

(28) Who wrote “Jane Eyre”?
(a) Charlotte Bronte
(b) Emile Bronte
(c) Anne Bronte

(29) After whom is the Elizabethan Age named?
(a) Elizabeth-I
(b) Elizabeth-II
(c) Elizabeth Browning

(30) What is the name of Wordsworth’s long poem?
(a) The Canterbury Tales
(b) Don Juan
(c) The Prelude

(31) A poem mourning someone’s death is called:
(a) Fable
(b) Epic
(c) Elegy

(32) Which of the following is not a tragedy written by Shakespeare?
(a) Macbeth
(b) Othello
(c) Merchant of Venice

(33) Who wrote “The Second Coming”?
(a) E. Spencer
(b) Eliot
(c) W. B. Yeats

(34) What period in English Literature is called the “Augustans Age”?
(a) Early 16th Century
(b) 17th Century
(c) Early 18th Century

(35) Which play among the following plays is not blank verse?
(a) Hamlet
(b) The Jew of Malta
(c) Pygmalion

(36) Which one of the following writers is not woman?
(a) Emily Bronte
(b) Jane Austen
(c) Robert Browning

(37) Who is the villain in “Hamlet”?
(a) Horatio
(b) Iago
(c) Claudius

(38) Who kills Macbeth in the play “Macbeth”?
(a) Duncan
(b) Bonquo
(c) Macduff

(39) Which is the last of Shakespeare’s great tragedies?
(a) Macbeth
(b) King Lear
(c) Othello
(d) Hamlet

(40) Who is the heroine of Shakespeare’s play “Hamlet”?
(a) Cordella
(b) Desdemona
(c) Portia
(d) Ophelia

(41) Romanticism (if it can be pinpointed) is usually assumed to date from:
(a) Publication of "Intimations of Immortality"
(b) The beginning of Queen Victoria’s reign
(c) The Reform Bill of 1832
(d) Publication of "Lyrical Ballads" and its preface
(e) 1800 – 1801

(42) Which of the following would a Romantic Poet be most likely to use?
(a) A "feathered chorister"
(b) A "member of the plumy race"
(c) A "bird" (d) A "tenant of the sky"
(e) An "airy fairy"

(43) Wordsworth’s Poetry always reflects:
(a) The creation of abstract concepts
(b) An endorsement of the scientific tradition
(c) The creation of an original philosophy
(d) An examination of extraneous matters
(e) His belief in a world to come.

(44) Byron’s Poetry is ambiguous and has a vividness of phrasing which sometimes reaches the point of abstraction.
(a) True 
(b) False

(45) "English Bards and Scotch Reviewers" is a satirical attack on contemporary writers who had annoyed Byron.
(a) True
(b) False

(46) In 1850, Tennyson succeeded Wordsworth as poet laureate.  
(a) True
(b) False

(47) Mary Anne Evans is the same person as George Eliot.   
(a) True 
(b) False

(48) Keats’ widespread appeal is to the Reader’s interest in the supernatural.
(a) True
(b) False

(49) The literary figure who had the most pronounced effect on Keats was:
(a) Dante
(b) Shakespeare
(c) Wordsworth
(d) Shelley

(50) Shelly was a firm believer in all of the following except:
(a) Personal freedom
(b) The individual’s responsibility to society
(c) The power of love
(d) Human conduct based on conviction

(51) Maggie is the central character in George Eliot’s:
(a) Adam Bede
(b) Middle March
(c) The Mill on the Floss
(d) Silas Morner

(52) Which of following Books consists of Ruskin’s lectures:
(a) Modern painters
(b) The Stones of Venice
(c) The Crown of wild olive
(d) None of these

(53) Who described poetry as “Spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings”:
(a) Shelley
(b) Wordsworth
(c) Coleridge
(d) Arnold
(e) None of these

(54) ‘Hero and Hero worship’ was written by:
(a) Ruskin
(b) Carlyle
(c) Mill
(d) None of these

(55) The French Revolution took place in:
(a) 1793
(b) 1796
(c) 1798
(d) None of these

(56) ‘The Metaphysical Poets’ is a critical essay by:
(a) Arnold
(b) T. S. Eliot
(c) Shelley
(d) None of these

(57) “David Copperfield” was written by:
(a) Hardy
(b) Dickens
(c) Thackeray
(d) None of these

(58) Who said this “Poetry is the Criticism of life”:
(a) Wordsworth
(b) Byron
(c) T.S. Eliot
(d) Arnold

(59) ‘The Revolt of Islam’ was written by:
(a) Wordsworth
(b) Coleridge
(c) Shelley
(d) None of these

(60) ‘The Lotos Eaters’ was written by:
(a) Blake
(b) Byron
(c) Tennyson
(d) None of these

(61) Shelley’s poetry used all of the following components for themes except:
(a) Worship of God
(b) Passion
(c) Narcissism
(d) Emotional self-indulgence

(62) The prose of the Romantic period had a tendency to:
(a) Objectify the issue in terms of a cause
(b) Advance a single system to the public
(c) Allow the writer to draw on his
(d) Be brooding and meditative. own personality

(63) Charles Lamb’s "Dream Children" is notable for its:
(a) Crushing tragedy
(b) Humor
(c) Whimsical Pathos
(d) Cynicism

(64) The Victorian age can be dated by which of the following events and years:
(a) Mills’s "on liberty’ (1859) to end of century (1900)
(b) Reform Bill (1832) to end of Boer War (1902)
(c) Birth of Tennyson (1809) to his death (1892)
(d) Tennyson’s Poems, Chiefly Lyrical (1830) to death of Queen Victoria (1901)

(65) Which of the following works ‘had the greatest influence on the Victorian Age?
(a) Mill’s "On Liberty"
(b) Tennyson’s "In memoriam"
(c) Darwin’s "Origin of Species"
(d) Carlyle’s "Sartor Resartus"
(e) Ruskin’s "The stones of Venice"

(66) In which of the following Genres did Victorian Literature achieve its greatest success:
(a) Drama
(b) Epic Poetry
(c) Lyric Poetry
(d) The Essay
(e) The Novel

(67) Identify the sources of the quotations listed below:
1.    "Hail to thee blithe spirit"
2.    "Spirit of beauty that dost consecrate"
3.    "Paint/Must never hope to reproduce the- faint Halfflush that dies     along her throat".
4.    "Where are the songs of Spring? Ay,- where are they? Think not of    them, thou hast thy music too
5.    "Ah, happy, happy boughs! that cannot shed your leaves, nor ever       bid the Spring adieu",
6.    "Our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting"
7.    "A hand may first and then a lip be kist;
    For my part, to such doings I’m a stranger"
8.    "My hair is grey, but not with years, nor grew it white, In a single       night"

(A) "May Last Duchess"
(B) "To a sky Lark"
(C) "Ode to Autumn"
(D) "Don Juan"
(E) "The Prisoner of Chillon"
(F) "Ode on a Grecian Urn"
(G) "Intimations of Immortality’ (Ode)
(H) "Hymn to Intellectual Beauty"


(68) Who wrote "Shakespeare’s Later Comedies’?
(a) A.C. Bradley
(b) Palmer D.J.
(c) Dr.Johnsofl

(69) Which of the following is not a dramatist?
(a) Ben Johnson
(b) Eliot
(c) S. Backett

(70) Which. of the following is not a play by Shakespeare?
(a) Tempest
(b) Pygmalion
(c) King Lear

(71) Who is the author of ‘After Strange Gods’?
(a) Shaw
(b) Robert Frost
(c) Eliot

(72) Who is the Villain in ‘Hamlet’?
(a) Horatio
(b) Iago
(c) Claudius

(73) Who is the heroine of ‘Hamlet’?
(a) Cordelia
(b) Portia
(c) Ophelia

(74) After whom the Elizabethan Age is named:
(a) Elizabeth I
(b) Elizabeth II
(c) Elizabeth Browning

(75) Who wrote ‘Common Pursuit’?
(a) Leavis, F.R.
(b) Cecil, D.
(c) E. M. Foster

(76) ‘ Paradise Lost is an epic by:
(a). Spenser
(b) Chaucer
(c) Milton

(77) "After Apple Picking" is written by:
(a) Robert Browning
(b) Robert Frost 

(78) Ernest Hemingway wrote:
(a) Mr. Chips
(b) Pride and Prejudice
(c) Old Man and the Sea

(79) "Intellectual Beauty" is written by:
(a) Bertrand Russell
(b) Huxley
(c) P.B. Shelley

(80) Who wrote "20th Century Views"?
(a) Abrahams, M. H.
(b) Palmer, D. J.
(c) Bertrand Russell

(81) ‘Desert Places’ is a:
(a) Poem
(b) Play
(c) Novel

(82) The University Wits were:
(a) Poets
(b) Playwrights
(c) Novelists

(83) William Shakespeare was Born in:
(a) 1564
(b) 1534
(c) 1616

(84) Francis Bacon died in:
(a) 1616
(b) 1626
(c) 1648

(85) The period from 1660 to 1750 is known as:
(a) The Age of Classicism
(b) The Restoration
(c) The age of Milton

(86) Who wrote "The Pilgrim’s Progress"?
(a) John Bunyan
(b) Daniel Defoe
(c) Dryden

(87) ‘‘The Conduct of the Allies’ is a famous work of:
(a) Jonathan Swift
(b) Samuel Johnson
(c) Oliver ‘Goldsmith

(88) The abstract theory of utilitarianism is the theme of Dicken’s novel:
(a) Bleak House
(b) A Tale of Two Cities
(c) Hard Times
(d) Great Expectations

(89) “The one remains, the many change and pass; Heaven’s light for ever shines, earth’s shadows fly” These lines occur in:
(a) Keats’ Hyperion
(b) Shelley’s Hymn to Intellectual Beauty
(c) Shelley’s Adonis
(d) Keats’ Ode to Psyche
(e) None of these

(90) Name the character of a novel of Thomas Hardy, which is much like Oedipus, King Lear
and Faust. 
(a) Tess
(b) Thomasin
(c) Eustacia

(91) “She can not fade, though thou hast not the bliss, For ever wilt thou love, and she be fair!”
The above two lines have been taken from:
(a) Keats’ Ode to a Nightingale
(b) A Thing of Beauty
(c) La Belle Dame Sans Mercy
(d) Ode on a Grecian Urn

(92) ‘Withdrawal from an uncongenial world of escape either to death or more often, to an
ideal dream world’, is the theme of Tennyson’s:
(a) Ulysses
(b) The Palace of Arts
(c) The Lotos – Eaters
(d) None of these

(93) Philip Waken, Aunt Pallet and Tom Tulliver are the characters of G. Eliot’s novel:
(a) Silas Manner
(b) Adam Bede
(c) Middle March
(d) The Mill on the Floss

(94) "In all things, in all natures, in the stars,
This active principle abides,"
Identify the poet and his peculiar belief that can be understood from the above lines.
Answer: William Wordsworth as he was of the opinion that in this universe ‘nature’ is the
point of focus for everything.

(95) “Thy, Damnation, Slunbreth, Not”
Name the writer, his book and the character who uttered/wrote these words.
Writer – Thomas Hardy
Book – Tess of the D'Urbervilles
Character – a young man who is traveling the countryside painting scripture on the sides of
barns walks

(96) In Memoriam by Tennyson is:
(a) an elegy
(b) a collection of elegies
(c) a lyric
(d) a dramatic lyric
(e) None of these

(97) The poem, “The Marriage of Heaven and Hell” was written by:
(a) Shelley
(b) Blake
(c) Byron
(d) Browning
(e) None of these

(98) ‘Unto This Last’ is a book written by:
(a) Mill on economic reforms
(b) Carlyle on moral reforms
(c) Ruskin on moral reforms
(d) None of these

(99) Mathew Arnold said: “An ineffectual angel beating in the void his luminous wings in
vain”, about:
(a) Keats
(b) Byron
(c) Shelley
(d) Blake
(e) None of these

(100) For whom it is said: “sensuousness is a paramount bias of his genius”:
(a) Blake
(b) Keats
(c) Tennyson
(d) Shelley
(e) None of these