Saturday, 2 March 2019

Feminism in 'Ice Candy Man' by Bapsi Sidhwa


Sushila Singh puts it in Feminism and Recent Fiction in English: Human experience for centuries has been synonymous with the masculine experience with the result that the collective image of humanity has been one-sided and incomplete. Woman has not been defined as a subject in her own right but merely has an entity that concerns man either in his real life or his fantasy life.

Many contemporary writers have projected the plight of women based on caste, creed, religion, gender-prejudices, community and beliefs, and are trying to suggest some pragmatic solutions to them.

In ‘Ice-Candy Man’, the whole story has been narrated by the female protagonist Lenny who relates the horrors of violence and her personal observations and reactions. The protagonist not only observes but also analyses men’s lascivious and degrading attention towards women, voraciousness of male sexual desires, women’s plight as they are reduced to the status of sexual objects, and relates the peculiar disadvantages, social and civil, to which they are subjected.

Lenny as a narrator relates her life as, “my world is compressed”. As a physically handicapped girl, her world is restricted to the four walls of the house. As a child she spends most of her time with her Godmother. She terms her Godmother’s room as, “my refuge from the perplexing unrealities of my home on Warris Road”. Her schooling is stopped as suggested by Col. Bharucha, her doctor, because she was suffering from polio. He concludes, “she’ll marry—have children—lead a carefree, happy life. No need to strain her with studies and exams”. Lenny concludes that the suggestion made by Col. Bharucha sealed her fate. It reveals the limitations associated with a girl’s life.

Patriarchal society considers women as physically weak to venture into the world outside the four walls of their houses and too deficient to make important decisions. Hence women are relegated to the domestic sphere where they have to accept the domination of a male counterpart. Since ages it is considered that it is a woman’s duty to tend house, raise children and give comfort to her family.

Lenny as a girl learns that marriage of girls is of utmost importance to their parents. Independence and self-identity are meant for men. The intense concern for her marriage even in her childhood puts Lenny in dismay. As a child she was shocked to perceive Ice-Candy-Man pushing his wife Ayah into the business of prostitution. The site of Hindu and Muslim women being raped during the riots petrifies her.

Lenny’s mother is another interesting female character of the novel. As a servile housewife, she limits her life to the four walls of her home. She reticently follows her husband, who is the decision-maker of the family. Lenny’s mother is a representative of those traditional women who as subordinates never express their desire to establish themselves as better human beings.

Sidhwa as a writer encourages women to transgress the line of marginalization. She states in an interview: “As a woman, one is always marginalized. 1 have worked among women to create an awareness of their rights and protested against repressive measures aimed at Pakistani women and minority community”.

Women should utilize their potentials beyond their domestic life to assert their individuality. The novel Ice-Candy-Man projects through Lenny’s mother that women should have a purpose in life besides domesticity which should be developed by them to the best of their abilities. Lenny’s mother exhibits a change in her personality by the end of the novel. She becomes acquainted with the political changes occurring in the country during India-Pakistan division.

She emerges as a social worker. Along with Lenny’s Electric-Aunt, she helps the victims of 1947 riots. She provides people with petrol who wanted to cross the border and helps the raped and exploited women. The novel ends on a positive note. Women strive to come out of their plight and finally move forward from their degraded and tormented state to start their lives afresh.

Hence, we can conclude that Sidhwa as a writer has a constructive approach towards women’s predicament. Women may not just fill a place in the society but they should fit in it. By leading a contented life they paralyze their lives but if they desire they will have courage to break through their plight and afford opportunity for betterment.

Sunday, 30 December 2018

30 Days’ Preparation Plan for PPSC Exams of English Lecturer, Assistant Professor and Subject Specialist etc.


30 Days’ Preparation Plan
PPSC Exams for English Lecturer & Assistant Professor
Suggested By:   Shuaib Asghar, Lecturer in English
Govt. R. I. Postgraduate College Haroonabad

Topics for Reading
Discussion and Analysis of Text and Summaries
·   Introduction to Different kinds of Subjective Poetry i.e. Lyric, Elegy, Ode, Sonnet

·   Introduction to Different kinds of Objective Poetry i.e. Ballad, Epic, Mock-Epic, Idyll, Dramatic Monologue
·  Adonais by P. B. Shelley

·  Ode to Autumn, Ode to Melancholy, Ode on a Grecian Urn, Ode to a Nightingale by John Keats

·  The Prelude by William Wordsworth
·   Commonly Used Figures of Speech with Examples and Different Stanza Forms

·   Metre and Rhythm, Iambic, Torchaic, Anapaestic, Dactylic, Amphibrachic

·   Rhymed Verse and Blank Verse
·  Faerie Queene by Edmund Spenser

·  Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience  by William Blake

·  Andrea Del Sarto and Fra Lippo Lippi by Robert Browning  
·   Introduction to Different kinds of Drama i.e. Miracle and Mystery Play, Morality Play, Tragedy, Aristotle’s Concept of Tragedy, Revenge Tragedy, Heroic Tragedy, Melodrama, Historical Play
·  Oedipus Rex by Sophocles

·  Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, Macbeth, Antony and Cleopatra, Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare 
·   Introduction to Comedy, Classical Comedy, Romantic Comedy, Shakespearean Comedy, Comedy of Humours, Comedy of Manners, Farce, Masque, Tragic-Comedy
·  The Merchant of Venice, The Tempest, As You Like it by William Shakespeare

·  Everyman in his Humour, Alchemist by Ben Jonson   
·   Introduction to Novel, Picaresque Novel, Panoramic Novel, Historical Novel, Regional Novel, Psychological Novel, Stream of Consciousness Novel
·   Pamela  by Richardson 

·   Tom Jones, Joseph Andrews by Henry Fielding
·   Anglo-Saxon/Old English Period, Major Writers and a Brief Survey of their Works

·   Anglo-Norman/Middle English Period, Major Writers and a Brief Survey of their Works 
·   The Prologue by Geoffrey Chaucer
·   Renaissance Movement: Trends, Major Contributors, Writers and a Brief Survey of their Works

·   University Wits
·   Doctor Faustus, The Jew of Malta by Christopher Marlow

·   Twelfth Night, Much Ado About Nothing, All’s Well that Ends Well by William Shakespeare
·   Puritan Age: Trends, Major Writers and a Brief Survey of their Works

·   The Cavalier Poets

·   Jacobean and Caroline Drama

·   Jacobean and Caroline Prose
·   The Sun Rising, A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, The Anniversaries, The Good Morrow, Twicknam Garden by John Donne

·   Paradise Lost by John Milton
·   Restoration Period: Trends, Major Writers and a Brief Survey of their Works 
·   The Way of the World by William Congreve

·   Absalom and Achitophel by John Dryden

·   The Pilgrim’s Progress by John Bunyan
·   Poetry during The Age of Pope

·   Prose of the Age of Pope  
·   The Rape of the Lock by Alexander Pope

·   Gulliver’s Travels by Jonathan Swift

·   Robinson Crusoe, Moll Flanders  by Daniel Defoe
·   Poets of the Age of Johnson

·   Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard by Thomas Gray

·   To a Mouse, Man was Made to Mourne  by Robert Burns

·   Odes to Simplicity, To Fear, To the Passion, Ode to Evening by William Collins
·   Prose of the Age of Johnson
·   Brief Survey of the Prose of Samuel Johnson, Burke, Edward Gibbon

·   All for Love by John Dryden

·   Lives of Poets by Samuel Johnson

·   The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon

·   Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard by Thomas Gray
·   Eighteenth Century English Novel

·   Eighteenth Century English Drama
·   Jonathan Wild by Henry Fielding

·   The Vicar of Wakefield by Oliver Goldsmith

·   The Rivals, The School for Scandal by R. B. Sheridan 
·   Novelists and Prose Writers of the Romantic Age

·   The Gothic Novel   
·   Pride and Prejudice, Sense and Sensibility, Emma  by Jane Austen

·   Brief Survey of the Prose of Charles Lamb, William Hazlitt and Thomas de Quincey  
·   Poets of the Romantic Age, The Lake Poets, The Scot Group, The Younger Group
·   Tintern Abbey, Ode on the Intimations of Immorality by William Wordsworth

·   The Ancient Mariner, Kubla Khan by S.T. Coleridge

·   The Lady of the Last Ministrel, The Lord of the Isles by Sir Walter Scott

·   Queen Mab, The Revolt of Islam, Ode to the West Wind, Prometheus Unbound by P.B. Shelley

·   English Bards and Scottish Reviewers, Childe Harold, The Vision of Judgment by Lord Byron
·   Early Victorian Period: Trends, Major Writers and a Brief Survey of their Works 
·  Great Expectation, A Tale of Two Cities,
David Copperfield by Charles Dickens

·  Vanity Fair by William Thackeray 

·  Jane Eyre  by Charlotte Bronte  

·  Wuthering Heights by Emile Bronte

·  Brief Survey of the Prose of Thomas
Carlyle, John Ruskin, Lord Macaulay, Mathew Arnold 
·   Later Victorian Period: Trends, Major Writers and a Brief Survey of their Works

·   Pre-Raphaelite Poets
·   Middle March, Adam Bede, The Mill on the Floss by George Eliot  

·   The Importance of Being Earnest by Oscar Wilde

·   The Return of the Native, Tess of the D’Urbervilles, The Mayor of Casterbridge by Thomas Hardy   
·   Twentieth Century English Poetry: Trends, Major Poets and a Brief Survey of their Works 
·   Some Famous Poems of W.B. Years (The Wild Swans at Coole, The Tower, The Winding Stair etc.)

·   The Wasteland, Love Song by T.S. Eliot
·   Twentieth Century English Drama: Trends, Major Dramatists and a Brief Survey of their Works 

·   Poetic Drama, Historical and Imaginative Plays in Twentieth Century
·   Devil’s Disciple, Pygmalion, Major
    Barbara by Bernard Shaw

·   Justice  by John Galsworthy

·   Seven Short Plays by Lady Gregory 

·   Waiting for Godot  by Samuel Beckett  

·   The Wild Duck, A Doll’s House, Hedda Gabler  by Henrik Ibsen  
·   Twentieth Century English Novel: Trends, Major Novelists and a Brief Survey of their Works
·   Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad

·   A Passage to India by E. M. Forster

·   Captain Courageous, Kim by Rudyard Kipling

·   1984, Animal Form by George Orwell
·   The Transitionalists

·   The Angry Young men
·   Ulysses  by James Joyce

·   To the Lighthouse, Mrs. Dalloway by Virginia Woolf

·   Women in Love, Sons and Lovers, The Rainbow by D. H. Lawrence

·   Point Counter Point  by Aldous Huxley  
·   Short Story in English Literature: Trends, Major Writers and a Brief Survey of their Works 
·   Classical Criticism (Aristotle, Longinus)

·   Neo Classical Criticism (Samuel Johnson)

·   Romantic Criticism (S. T. Coleridge, Wordsworth)

·   Critical Theories of Mathew Arnold and T. S. Eliot
·   Introduction to Feminism , Deconstruction, Marxism, Psychoanalytical Criticism, Post Structuralism , Symbolists, Pre-Raphaelites, Romanticism
·   Theatre of the Absurd, Aestheticism, Angry Young Men, Beat Generation, Bloomsburry Group, Comedia  dell’arte, Dadaism, Enlightenment   
·   Literary Terms (Try to comprehend and memorize as maximum literary terms as possible) 

·   Introduction to Essay, Its Chief Characteristics  and Major Essayist of English Literature
·   Gothic Fiction, Lost Generation, Magic Realism, Metaphysical Poetry, Modernism, Post Modernism, High Modernism, Naturalism,  Post-colonial Literature, Post-modernism, Transcendentalism

·   Read and Analyze some of the famous essays by Bacon, Russel, Lamb, Mill and Mark Twain
·    Introduction and Brief History of American Drama and Poetry, Famous Poets, Dramatists and Themes    
·   Long Days’ Journey into Night, Mourning Becomes Electra by Eugene O’Neill

·   Death of a Salesman, The Crucible by Arthur Miller

·   Some Famous Poems of Robert Frost
·   Introduction and Brief History of American Novel, Famous Novels and Themes
·   A Farewell to Arms, The Old Man & The Sea, For Whom the Bell Tolls, The Sun Also Rises by Hemingway

·   The Sound and the Fury by William Faulkner
·   Phonetics, Various Branches of Phonetics, Classification of Consonants and Vowels

·   Segmental Phonology, Phoneme, Allophone, Phone, Assimilation, Dissimilation, Elision etc.

·   Supra Segmental Phonology, Intonation, Stress, Syllable etc.

·   Morphology, Morpheme, Different Classifications of Morpheme, Allomorph, Morph  
·   Jazz by Tony Morrison

·   East of Eden, The Pearl by John Steinbeck

·   In Memoriam by Alfred Tennyson

·   The Scholar Gipsy by Mathew Arnold
·   Psycho-linguistics, Behaviorism, Mentalism

·   Socio-linguistics, Dialect, Sociolect, Idiolect, Register, Lingua-Franca, Diglossia, Pidgin, Creole, Bilingualism etc.

·   Pragmatics, Semantics

·   Linguistic Terms
·   Poetry  of Ted Hughes, Sylvia Plath, Seamus Heaney and John Ashbery

·   The Cherry Orchard by Anton Chekhov

·   Parts of Speech, Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Adverb, Adjective etc. Definition and Different Kinds

·   Direct and Indirect

·   Active and Passive Sentences

·   Commonly Used Phrasal Verbs, Prepositions and Idioms
·     Poetry of Sir Thomas Whatt, Walt Whitman and Henry Howard-Earl of Surrey

·     Things Fall Apart by  Chinua Achebe

·   Synonyms, Antonyms (Try to enhance your vocabulary as maximum as possible from different books, exercises or with the help of internet)

·   Famous works of English literature with their age of publication

·   Famous Literary Characters

·   Nobel Prize Winners in Literature
·  Murder in the Cathedral by T. S. Eliot

·  She Stoops to Conquer by  Oliver Goldsmith

·  Shepherd’s Calendar by Edmund Spenser

·  Ivanhoe by Walter Scott

·  Frankenstein by Mary Shelley         

      Recommended Books:

1.      A Background to English Literature by Dr. Raghukul Tilak
2.      A History of English Literature by B. R. Mullick
3.      Quintessence of Literary Essays and Viva Voce by W. R. Goodman
4.      History of English Literature by T. Singh
5.      Objective Helping Books for PPSC Exams by Dogars, Ilmi, and Karwan Publishers